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Liquor is closely related to our real life. Every household has the habit of drinking liquor more or less. It is the essence of grains and grains in the world. It is also a catalyst in the Chinese diet.

Wine is the carrier of etiquette and civilization of the Chinese nation. Marriage, birthday celebration, reward, death, season, Qiao's new residence, banquet guests, dust collection, farewell, everywhere there are things in the cup. Can drink, but also understand wine! Today I will give you a detailed introduction to the cultural knowledge of liquor.

I. Understanding Wine

1. Alcohol

Any liquid containing sugar will produce alcohols, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol after fermentation. Methanol is toxic and can be poisoned after drinking; ethanol is non-toxic and can stimulate nerve and blood circulation, but excessive drinking can also cause poisoning. Alcohol, commonly known as alcohol, is a colorless, transparent, odorous, flammable and volatile liquid with a boiling point of 78 C and a freezing point of - 114 C.

2. Alcohol content

Alcohol content in liquor is expressed by alcoholicity, usually expressed by metric system and American system.

(1) Metric alcohol content. Metric alcoholicity, expressed as percentage or degree, refers to the volume proportion of alcoholic content in liquor at 20 C. If a certain kind of wine contains 38% alcohol at 20 C, it is called 38 degrees.

(2)Alcohol quality. Proof is the alcoholic alcohol content of 100 Proof when the volume ratio of alcohol content in liquor reaches 50% at 20 C. If a certain wine contains 38% alcohol at 20 C, it is 76 Proof.

In addition, there are British alcoholic drinks, expressed as Sikes, but rarely.

3. Alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverage refers to any beverage that contains 0.5%-75.5% alcohol. In contrast, non-alcoholic drinks, commonly known as soft drinks.

4. Harmful Components in Liquor

1. Methanol: lead to poisoning, blindness and even death, even a small amount of content will cause headache and other adverse feelings.

2. Fusel oil: excessive content causes headache, i.e. "head" easy to get drunk.

3. Lead PB, moan and AS all cause poisoning.

II. Classification of Wines

1. According to the manufacturing method

(1)Brewing wine. Brewing wine refers to the wine made from fruits, grains and other raw materials, filtered or pressed after fermentation. Generally, they are below 20 degrees, and their irritation is weak, such as wine, beer, rice wine and so on.

(2) Distilled liquor. Distilled liquor, also known as spirits, refers to the liquor obtained by fermentation of fruits, grains and other raw materials, and then distillation of fermentation liquor containing alcohol. Distilled liquor has a high alcohol content, generally above 20 degrees, and has strong stimulation, such as brandy, whiskey, Chinese liquor and so on.

(3)Prepare wine. Preparing liquor is a kind of liquor which is filtered or distilled after adding a certain amount of fruits, spices and medicinal materials to various brewing liquor, distilled liquor or edible alcohol. Such as bayberry wine, bamboo leaf green, three snakes wine, ginseng wine, liqueur, vermouth and so on.

2. According to alcohol content

(1)High alcohol. High alcohol refers to liquors with alcoholic content above 40 degrees, such as brandy, rum, some liquor, etc.

(2)Medium wine. Medium-alcohol refers to the alcohol content between 20 and 40 degrees.

(3)Low alcohol. Low-alcohol Liquor refers to liquor with alcohol content below 20 degrees, such as yellow rice wine, wine, sake and so on.

3. Classification by business operation

(1)Liquor and Spirits. Liquor is a distilled liquor with grain as raw material. It is also called “ roast liquor ” because of its high alcoholicity. Its characteristics are colorless, transparent, pure texture, mellow aroma, rich taste.

(2)Yellow Wine. Yellow rice wine is a traditional wine produced in China. It is made from glutinous rice, rice (usually japonica rice), millet and other raw materials. It is named for its bright yellow liquor color. Its characteristics are mellow and delicate fragrance, harmonious taste, aging and fragrance, rich nutrition.

(3)Fruit wine. Fruit wine is brewed with fruit and juice as raw materials, most of which are named after fruit names, such as wine, hawthorn wine, apple wine, litchi wine, etc. Its characteristics are delicate color, rich fruit aroma, mellow wine, rich nutrition.

(4)Medicinal wine. Medicinal liquor is a kind of blended liquor which is made from finished liquor (liquor is the main raw material) and soaked with various Chinese herbal medicines. Medicinal liquor is a kind of alcoholic beverage with high nourishing, nutritional and medicinal value.

(5)Beer. Beer is brewed from barley and hops. It is characterized by distinct fragrance of malt and hops, pure and refreshing taste, high nutritional value, promoting appetite and helping digestion.

III.Aroma Types and Typical Representatives of Chinese Liquor

According to the aroma type, liquor can be divided into more than ten kinds, including Maotai, Luzhou, Fengxiang, Fengxiang, Jianxiang, Medicinal, Sesame, Special, Soybean, Old White Dry, Fuyu and so on.

1.Highly flavored type

This is one of the most popular flavor types in liquor market. This kind of liquor is famous for its rich aroma, soft and sweet taste, smooth entrance, sweet taste, clean tail, long aftertaste and special fragrance after meals. Luzhou-flavor liquor camp can also be divided into several categories: one is the circulating cellar-running method with Wuliangye liquor as the typical one; the other is the cellar-fixing method with sorghum as the raw material represented by Luzhou Laojiao liquor; the other is the pure Luzhou-flavor liquor produced in the Jianghuai area, using the old five-steamer production technology, which has a softer and elegant taste than the former two, with Yanghe, Shuanggou, Gujinggong and Songhe grain liquor. Representatives.

2.Soy sauce Aroma Style

The wine is yellowish and transparent in color, with a harmonious combination of sauce, charcoal and paste aromas. The taste is delicate and elegant, and the fragrance of the empty cup lasts for a long time. Maotai liquor is the most classic Maotai liquor, so it is also known as & quot; Maotai Liquor & quot;.

3.Fragrance type

The wine has a clear and transparent color, a very pure taste, a pure fragrance and a very sweet aftertaste. Fen liquor as the representative, also known as "Fen flavor type".

4.Mixiang type

Soft taste, honey fragrance, elegant, sweet entrance, pleasant aftertaste. Guilin Sanhua Liquor is the representative.

5.Concurrent fragrance

The concurrent flavor type can be further divided into two categories: the one with strong flavor in sauce, which is characterized by comfortable aroma, delicate fullness, harmonious sauce concentration, refreshing and long aftertaste, represented by Baiyunbian liquor in Hubei Province, and the other with strong and medium sauce, which is characterized by harmonious taste, delicate taste and clear aftertaste, represented by Yuquan liquor in Heilongjiang Province.

6. Medicinal aroma

Clear and transparent, strong fragrance with medicinal fragrance, elegant aroma, moderate acidity, harmonious fragrance, long tail clean taste. Guizhou Dong Jiu, also known as "Dong Xiang-type".

7. Fengxiang type

The liquor is colorless and transparent, mellow and elegant, mellow and plump, sweet and refreshing, with harmonious flavors and long tail. It represents Xifeng liquor in Shaanxi Province.

8. Zhixiang Type

Sesame aroma is prominent, elegant and delicate, pleasant and harmonious, clean tail, typical of Shandong Jingzhi White Dry Wine.

9. Soybean flavor

Yujie Bingqing wine body, unique sauce fragrance, mellow and mellow, clean aftertaste. Take Jiangwan Jade Ice Burning in Guangdong Province as the representative.

10. Specially fragrant type

The wine has clear color, fragrance, pure taste, soft body, harmonious flavors and long fragrance. The representative liquor is the Four Special Liquors in Jiangxi Province.

11. Old White Dry Fragrance Type

Colorless or yellowish transparent, mellow and elegant, harmonious body, mellow and straight, long aftertaste. On behalf of the old white dry wine in Hengshui, Hebei Province.

12. Tulip type

Aromatic and elegant, soft and sweet, mellow and delicate, pleasant aftertaste, fragrant, clean and refreshing wine. Represents the wine of Hunan alcoholics.

IV. Evaluation of Chinese Famous Wines

1. In the first evaluation of liquor in Beijing in 1952, four famous liquors were selected.

(1)55 degree Maotai (Guizhou, Maotai)

(2)65 Degree Luzhou Laojiao Daqu (Sichuan, Luzhou-flavor)

(3)65 degrees Xifeng Wine (Shaanxi, Fengxiang)

(4)65 Degree Fen Liquor (Shanxi, Fen-flavor type)

2. In the second evaluation in Beijing in 1963, eight famous liquors were selected from liquors.

(1)55 degree Maotai (Guizhou, Maotai)

(2)60 degree Dong Liquor (Guizhou, Medicinal Flavor Type)

(3)Luzhou Laojiao Special Opera of 60 Degrees (Sichuan, Luzhou-flavor)

(4)59 Degree Quanxing Daqu (Sichuan, Luzhou-flavor)

(5)60 Degree Wuliangye (Sichuan, Luzhou-flavor)

(6)65 degrees Xifeng Wine (Shaanxi, Fengxiang)

(7)65 Degree Fen Liquor (Shanxi, Fen-flavor type)

(8) 65 degrees Gujinggong (Anhui, Luzhou-flavor)

3. In the third evaluation in Dalian in 1979, eight famous liquors were selected from liquors.

(1)Maotai 55 degrees

(2)Dong Jiu 60 degrees

(3)Luzhou Laojiao Special Opera of 60 Degrees

(4)60 degree Wuliangye

(5)Jiannanchun (Sichuan, Luzhou-flavor type)

(6)60 Degree Fen Liquor

(7)53 degrees Gujinggong

(8)Yanghe Daqu (Jiangsu, Luzhou-flavor) with 55 degrees, 62 degrees and 64 degrees

4. In the 4th Taiyuan evaluation in 1984, 13 famous liquors were selected from liquors.

(1) Maotai Liquor (Feitian Brand, Guizhou Maotai-flavor)

(2) Dong Jiu (Dong Brand, Guizhou Pharmaceutical Fragrance Type)

(3) Luzhou Laojiao Special Song (Luzhou Brand, Sichuan Luzhou Fragrance Type)

(4) Quanxing Daqu (Quanxing Brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor Type)

(5) Wuliangye (Wuliangye brand, Jiao Cup brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor type)

(6) Jiannanchun (Jiannanchun Brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor Type)

(7) Lang Jiu (Langquan Brand, Sichuan Maotai-flavor)

(8) Xifeng Liquor (Xifeng Brand, Shaanxi Fengxiang Type)

(9) Fenjiu (Gujing Pavilion, Great Wall, Shanxi Fragrance)

(10)Gujinggong (Gujingpai, Luzhou-flavor Anhui)

(11)Yanghe Daqu (Yanghe Brand, Jiangsu Luzhou-flavor)

(12)Shuanggou Daqu (Shuanggou Brand, Luzhou-flavor Jiangsu)

(13)Special Yellow Crane Tower (Yellow Crane Tower, Jiangsu Fengxiang Type)

5. In 1989, the fifth evaluation of liquor in Hefei, the seventeenth National Congress of Liquors was awarded.

(1) Maotai Liquor (Feitian Brand, Guizhou Maotai-flavor)

(2) Dong Jiu (Dong Brand, Guizhou Pharmaceutical Fragrance Type)

(3) Luzhou Laojiao Special Song (Luzhou Brand, Sichuan Luzhou Fragrance Type)

(4) Quanxing Daqu (Quanxing Brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor Type)

(5) Wuliangye (Wuliangye brand, Jiao Cup brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor type)

(6) Jiannanchun (Jiannanchun Brand, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor Type)

(7) Lang Jiu (Langquan Brand, Sichuan Maotai-flavor)

(8) Tuobai Daqu (Tuobai, Sichuan Luzhou-flavor)

(9) Xifeng Liquor (Xifeng Brand, Shaanxi Fengxiang Type)

(10) Fenjiu (Gujing Pavilion, Great Wall, Shanxi Fragrance)

(11) Gujinggong (Gujingpai, Luzhou-flavor Anhui)

(12) Yanghe Daqu (Yanghe Brand, Jiangsu Luzhou-flavor)

(13) Shuanggou Daqu (Shuanggou Brand, Luzhou-flavor Jiangsu)

(14) Special Yellow Crane Tower (Yellow Crane Tower, Jiangsu Fengxiang Type)

(15) Songhe Grain Solution (Songhe Brand, Henan Luzhou-flavor Type)

(16) Baofeng Liquor (Baofeng Brand, Henan Fragrance Type)

(17) Wuling Liquor (Wuling Brand, Hunan Maotai-flavor)

V.Liquor shelf life, preservation and collection

Why don't liquors have a shelf life?

1. Alcohol itself sterilizes. Through scientific experiments, some harmful microorganisms can not grow and reproduce even in liquids containing 10% alcohol, and do not produce harmful substances.

2. The chemical change of liquor with high degree will be very small, and the sealing technology is developed now, so there is no need to mark the shelf life.

3. Some low-alcohol liquor is not suitable for long-term storage, because even if the liquor is sealed well, it will be stored for a long time because of "breathability", resulting in the multiplication of alcohol volatilization microorganisms, making the liquor "tasteless".

Why is liquor Chen Xiang?

1. The composition of liquor is very complex. Experts have known for many years that ethyl acetate is the substance that gives off flavor in liquor. However, the content of ethyl acetate in new wine is very low. On the contrary, some aldehydes and acids are abundant. These substances not only have no fragrance, but also stimulate the throat, so the new wine will be very difficult to drink.

2. After storage, aldehydes, acids and other substances in liquor are oxidized and volatilized continuously, and ethyl acetate with aromatic odor is gradually produced, which makes liquor mellow and produces liquor fragrance. Therefore, some people will say that liquor is alive and changing every day. However, the speed of change is slow. Some famous liquors often need to be stored for decades in order to achieve the best taste. Maotai, as we know it, takes five years from its brewing to its production.

3. now some of the liquor in the production process, will add flavor and spices. So maybe after your long storage, the flavors and spices will change and the flavour of wine will also change.

How to preserve liquor?

Generally speaking, liquor will be stored in boxes or sealed jars in the design process. Generally speaking, with this layer of protection, it is OK to put it in a place where there is little light in the corner.

However, we should also pay attention to the fact that liquor will not leak unless it is sealed properly. Modern sealing methods can hardly resist high temperature and humidity. Therefore, the temperature and humidity of the environment are also very important. It is recommended not to put wine in a place where it is wet or where the temperature exceeds 40 degrees.

In addition, some alcoholic drinks stored for more than three years should be inspected regularly, and some plastic bottle caps should be slightly tightened and tightened.

Which liquors are suitable for collection?

1. High alcohol is more suitable for collection. Higher than 50 degrees, the price of this kind of product is more than 50 yuan, generally brewed from pure grain, more suitable for collection. Alcohol in low alcoholic drinks below 50 degrees is easier to volatilize and is not recommended for long-term preservation.

2. Collect branded or valuable wines. Liquor collection is similar to stamp collection, which pays attention to both brand and complete set and special significance. The main products like Maotai and Wuliangye are suitable for collection. At the same time, some products with special years, special significance and special events of brands are the concepts that should be paid attention to in liquor collection.

3. Maotai-flavor liquor is more suitable for long-term storage. The special characteristics of Maotai-flavor liquor make the effect of flavor improvement more obvious after storage, which is more suitable for collection and long-term storage.

VI.How does liquor taste?

Hope: In the denier-shaped tall glass, pour a proper amount of liquor into it, and look at the bright place. It should be colorless, transparent and clear.

Smell: Hold the bottom of the denier-shaped cup with your finger, gently swing the liquor, let your nose close to the mouth of the cup and gently inhale the fragrance of the liquor. Remove the cup and exhale. After several repetitions, the rich liquor aroma will percolate into the internal organs, reverberating and pleasant feeling will rise.

Affix: gently pour a small amount of liquor (about 1-2 ml) into the cup, stay at the tip of the tongue for a few seconds, then touch the tongue against the upper jaw, let the liquor soak the whole tongue, and then smash it in the mouth several times, then the liquor is mellow and soft, sweet and full, smooth and pure, so that you can feel the taste of Qiongsiyu liquid.

Pharynx: gently swallow the liquor in your mouth into your throat. At this time, it is warm and mellow. It goes down in one pulse and then breathes again later. The aftertaste is like a fountain of fragrance.

So far, good wine and delicacies complement each other, so that you can gather friends to celebrate or enjoy the atmosphere to the extreme.